Research Projects

Current Research Projects

Detector Team (Sponsored by Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA))

Researchers: Yuefeng Zhu PhD, Gianluigi De Geronimo PhD, Zhuo Chen, Matthew Petryk, Sara Abraham, and Damon Anderson

Direct-attached CZT, standard-attached CZT, and separate ASIC carrier board

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)

Create an ASIC with on-board DSP capabilities.

H3D Digital (H3DD) ASIC

Create a low-noise ASIC with increased waveform readout capabilities.

Thermal Effects and Neutron Effects on CZT

Study the effect of crystal temperature on signal readout. Study the effect of neutron damage on the CZT crystal as well as potential lattice healing through high-temperature annealing.

NASA Balloon Project

In collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), prepare a CZT detector system to measure space gamma rays from a high-altitude NASA balloon.

Super-MeV Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

Attempt to measure gamma rays over 1 MeV with CZT.

CZT Detector Efficiency

Determine the mechanism for CZT’s relatively low efficiency.

Large CZT detector

Characterize the world’s largest CZT detector at 4 x 4 x 1.5 cm.

Overhead view of a 4-cm-wide CZT crystal

Orion Digital 3-Dimensional Position-Sensitive CdZnTe Detectors

Our digital ASIC system is the newest generation of readout system to acquire the signals from CdZnTe detectors. It reads waveforms from 121 anode pixels plus 1 planar cathode via onboard preamplifiers. This lossless data acquisition provides much more information than just the peak amplitude and time provided by the older analog ASIC. This ASIC can achieve energy resolution of 0.41 % FWHM for single-pixel events and 0.58 % FWHM for all events combined at 662 keV with 3-MeV dynamic range. Furthermore, waveform tracking allows sub-pixel position resolution; we can achieve position resolution of 300 um or better at 662 keV. Waveforms also allow limited event identification, such as differentiating charge sharing and Compton scattering. We have also just scratched the surface in terms of this ASIC’s potential.

  FinalSpectrum

 

Gamma-Ray Imaging Team (Sponsored by NA-22, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA))

Researchers: Daniel Shy, Valerie Nwadeyi, and Alexander Rice

Advanced Algorithms

Filtered Back-projection (FBP), Maximum Likelihood Expectation Modeling (MLEM), and Time-Encoded Imaging (TEI).

Proton Range Verification

Use imaging techniques to verify proton range in tissue in order to precisely deliver dose during medical therapy.

Quantification of Nuclear Material Holdup

In collaboration with Justin Knowles PhD of Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC and Y-12 National Security Complex, use imaging techniques to check for buildup on nuclear material in opaque pipes in order to prevent blockage.

Consortium for Monitoring, Technology, & Verification (MTV)

During July 2019, students Daniel Shy and Zhuo Chen and summer intern Brendan Huhlein conducted a week-long measurement campaign at Idaho National Laboratory.

Source position estimation without GPS is performed with a commercial detector, the H3D Polaris H420, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the shoe of the user.

The pixelated CZT detectors developed by our group provide 3-D positions and energy depositions of gamma-ray interactions within their volume. This detailed information allows us to determine the incident direction of gamma rays, based on the physics of their interactions with the CZT. We use both Compton and coded aperture imaging techniques to determine the spatial distribution of gamma-ray emitting materials around our detectors.
polarisGIF

The focus of the imaging group is to develop new imaging techniques and algorithms for real-world applications. Past research includes real-time tracking of moving objects, 3-D mapping of gamma-ray emissions inside a room, source detection algorithms, and imaging high energy (>3 MeV) gamma-rays. Recent collaboration includes work with NASA for imaging gamma rays from neutron-activated materials as well as measurements with researchers interested in imaging gamma-rays emitted from tissue during proton cancer therapy. Knowledge of the uncertainty and physics of interactions in our detectors also enables us to develop more advanced, iterative reconstruction techniques and to solve inverse problems to characterize gamma-ray emitting materials such as special nuclear material (SNM). Recent work on neutron detection via cadmium capture in our detectors has also expanded our capability to location of neutron-emitting sources.

Another project has the goal to achieve robust, direction-dependent isotope detection using large volume CdZnTe gamma-ray detectors. In this work, data from both Compton and coded aperture imaging are combined in a probability-based algorithm to solve for gamma-ray spectra as a function of direction. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, the well-established GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) will utilize this data to autonomously detect isotopes of interests and point to their direction. Of interest is the ability of directional information to improve the discrimination of background from isotopes of interest. Although this technology is designed with homeland security in mind, a range of other applications can be imagined: from space to medical imaging and radiation protection.

 

Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Gamma-Ray Spectrometers (DHS CWMD, RMD, and LLNL)

Researchers: Charles Leak, Matthew Petryk, and Erik Hall

TlBr is an attractive material for room-temperature gamma-ray spectroscopy because of its high stopping power, wide band-gap, and low melting point. In collaboration with Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Spectrometers have achieved < 1% FWHM at 662 keV but these results are limited to stable operation at -20 °C. Degradation over time (referred to as polarization) occurs in TlBr devices after hours to months of room-temperature operation. Our group’s goal is to characterize the polarization phenomena to help manufactures improve the lifetime of TlBr detectors.

In addition to room-temperature characterization, our team also tests detectors at -20 °C where they can operate indefinitely. We write new software algorithms to deal with material-specific characteristics like the relatively high hole mobility and are currently developing a portable two-stage cooling system. Our goal is to move to the digital ASIC readout system currently used on CZT.

TlBrBoard TlBr Detector


Exploratory Research Projects

In addition to the funded projects listed above, the Orion group is also working on several exploratory projects. These are intended as seeds for future projects with high risk and high impact to diverse problems throughout the radiation detection and measurements field.

Proton Cancer Therapy

Researchers: Valerie Nwadeyi

This is an exciting new field of radiation therapy that utilizes the precision of the proton Bragg peak to target and destroy cancerous tissue. However, there is a strong need for in vivo dose verification with millimeter accuracy to ensure that the proton dose is delivered to the correct location within the patient. This is especially true for high-risk treatments near critical organs. It has been shown that prompt gamma rays offer fine position resolution information since the secondary gamma emission distribution follows the proton dose distribution very closely. In collaboration with Professor Jerimy Polf’s group at the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s Department of Radiation Oncology, we have taken preliminary measurements of prompt gamma-rays ranging in energy up to 6 MeV from proton beams using a 64 CdZnTe crystal analog detector system, provided by H3D. Work on this topic continues as initial results indicate there is a promising future for this technology.

Alternative Material Semiconductors

Researchers: Charles Leak, Matthew Petryk, and Erik Hall

In addition to TlBr, we also collaborate with other universities, private companies, and national laboratories to characterize crystals they have fabricated. To date, these include CdZnTeSe (CZTS) and Perovskites such as cesium-lead-bromide and methyl ammonium-lead-bromide.


Past Research Projects

Consortium for Verification Technology (CVT) 2017

During August 2017, students David Goodman and Jiawei Xia conducted a week-long measurement campaign at Idaho National Laboratory. High resolution, ~1.5mm, time-encoded images were generated of ZPPR plates and MOX fuel pins using the MIRA system. High energy resolution spectra using digital, room temperature CdZnTe systems can be used to measure plutonium isotopics.

Left: ZPPR plutonium plate in bismuth collimator. Right: High resolution (~1.5mm), time encoded image generated in 30 minutes.

Left: Four MOX pins in an aluminum holder. Right: Time encoded reconstruction

Researchers: David Goodman, Bennett Williams, and Jiawei Xia

 

Real-Time Compton Imaging and Autonomous Source Searching

With the information of the detector position and orientation, it is possible to locate the back-projected Compton cones and estimate the source distribution in a 3D space. However, since the mesh size of a typical 3D imaging space and the number of collected events are both very large, the speed of reconstruction is limited and the memory usage is not practical for iterative algorithms. To accelerate the 3D reconstruction, an incremental iterative algorithm was applied, which provides real-time reconstruction speed while preserving reasonable statistics. Environmental information was fused to exclude voxels in the air and build a sparse 3D imaging space. We collaborated with Carnegie Mellon University by mounting a single-crystal detector on a robot with optical cameras and a LiDAR scanner, to achieve real-time 3D Compton imaging and autonomous source searching.

Researchers: Jiyang Chu in collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University

 

Thermal Neutron Imaging (DOE NNSA NA-22)

thermNeutron_geant4sim

Thermal neutron imaging is a new-developed capability for CdZnTe that allows us to locate and discern the shape of low-Z material near neutron-emitters such as plutonium. By detecting the interaction locations of cascade gammas following neutron capture on 113Cd, it has been shown that a directional “pointer” can be used to estimate the direction to a thermal neutron source. A special moving coded aperture mask technique is also under development, allowing us to obtain high resolution images of stationary extended sources.

Researchers: Steven Brown

 

Long-term stability of CdZnTe detectors is studied in a low background cave designed to hold the first Polaris system. Continuously collected data are used to determine the performance of the system over time, these data can also be used to study the potential application of CdZnTe to measurements of low activity sources or other applications that require extremely low backgrounds.

Researchers: Andy Boucher

 

Polaris 3-D Position-Sensitive CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Imaging spectrometers (DOD DTRA, DOE NA-22)

Develop room-temperature CZT semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers, with energy resolution of better than 1% at 662keV.

Researchers: Feng Zhang, Andy Boucher, Josh Mann, and Jim Berry

 

Digital 3-D semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers (DOD DTRA, DOE NA-22)

Develop digital acquisition system for room temperature CZT and alternative semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers.

Researchers: Feng Zhang, Yuefeng Zhu, Hao Yang, and Michael Streicher

 

Exploration of alternative room-temperature semiconductor gamma-ray detectors (Radiation Monitoring Devices and DNDO of DHS)

Develop alternative wide band-gap semiconductor radiation detectors from materials such as HgS, HgO, TlBrI and InBrI.

Researcher: Crystal Thrall and Will Koehler

 

Feasibility study on neutrino-less double-beta decay

Fundamental science/basic physics investigation.

Researcher: Feng Zhang and Andy Boucher

 

Study on high count-rate gamma-ray spectroscopy using 3-D CdZnTe detectors (DOE NA-22)

Simulate and measure pulse waveforms under high flux applications where the variation of space charge and the signal induction from charge drift cannot be decoupled.

Researcher: Meisher Rodrigues

 

Feasibility study on measuring elemental compositions of planetary bodies using 3D CdZnTe gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

Determine the feasibility of identifying elemental composition of Mars and the Moon using spectra obtained from 3D CdZnTe gamma-ray imaging spectrometry.

Researcher: Andy Boucher and Steven Brown